Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to
nanotechis the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with developing materials, devices, or other structures possessing at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometres. Quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale. Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to investigating whether we can directly control matter on the atomic scale. Nanotechnology entails the application of fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, etc.
Artificial photosynthesis is a research field that attempts to replicate the natural process of photosynthesis, which is a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The term is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing the energy from sunlight and storing it in the chemical bonds of a fuel. Splitting water, or photoelectrolysis, is one form of artificial photosynthesis that converts water into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight.